|Another early thing I teach dogs is "no pulling on lead". A pulling dog is no fun to walk, and an unwalked dog builds up more and more energy, making him that much more rambunctious on the next walk...not to mention how hyper and obnoxious he may be around the house! "Better living through technology" suggests that you might buy a prong collar (don't worry, they only look barbaric), a Gentle Leader, or a Sporn No-Pull harness to assist you, but it's even better to train your dog not to pull in the first place. Besides, learning not to pull of his own accord will increase his self-control and make him a better companion.
I teach 'no pulling' on a long leash of 15 to 40 feet. The dog wears either his normal leather collar, or a properly situated "choke" chain collar--a choke should be fitted such that, when you are not pulling on it, it hangs loosely on his neck. Viewed from the front, it looks like a "p", NOT a "q". Normally I do not endorse a choke collar at all, but it is a fairly effective tool for this particular exercise. BE SURE TO REMOVE THIS COLLAR as soon as you have finished the training session! Many dogs have literally choked to death on choke collars.
To begin, simply start walking. Don't pay any attention to the dog--he is about to learn that he needs to pay attention to what you are doing, not the other way around. Grasp the leash handle tightly, and keep the first foot or two of the lead looped up in your hand, ready to be released at the appropriate moment. When you see (in your peripheral vision) the dog about to reach the end of the lead, make a sharp turn and briskly walk in the opposite direction while releasing the extra slack in your hand. The dog will hit the end of the lead, receive a sharp 'pop' from the leash...and it won't take many repetitions of this before he decides that he'd better keep an eye on which direction YOU are headed. Once you go back to the 6 foot lead, for walks around town, simply remember that if the dog starts to forge ahead, you sharply turn around and walk the other way, letting him take the leash pop. DON'T let him keep any tension in the lead--if the lead starts to tighten, make yourself a little slack, and do a sharp about-face/leash correction. Little nagging tugs on the lead will only condition him to greater leash resistance, so avoid them. The leash should always being doing one of two things--hanging loosely, or letting the dog deliver himself a hard pop as he lunges in the wrong direction. It doesn't take long for them to realize that pulling on lead isn't in their best interests.
You can teach the dog to pay attention to you in other ways, as well. Ideally, when you are out with your dog, you want to be the most interesting thing in his world. Reward him every time he looks at you--even if it's just a smile and praise--as this is something you want to encourage. Occasionally call his name, and when he looks up, hand him a treat. (I keep a widely varied selection of treats on me when training, so he never knows which one it might be. <g>) Pick up interesting objects on the walk, and offer them to him. Stop every so often and practice an obedience command. Vary your walking speed. Anything you can think of to make yourself worth watching is good. :-) Here is a great link that is applicable as well, on "indirect access"--teaching the dog that the things he sees and wants can only be obtained through you!
Some tips on teaching "Come"-- During the training phase, don't call him unless you can enforce it...if he hears "Come" and then can successfully play keep-away instead, you are setting a very bad, self-rewarding habit that will be hard to break later. Save the word "Come" for only those times that you can be 100% sure you can make him come, if he doesn't do it on his own. Put him on a long leash, and let him wander or play...then say "Dakota, COME" in a calm but serious voice. If he doesn't respond right away, reel him in sharply, saying come-come-come the whole way. When he is right in front of you, make him Sit, then praise and pet and give treats. Don't give the command for this post-Come "Sit" though--just position him in a Sit by having him target your hand, or by lifting up on his collar. You want him to think that sitting down in front of you is how he finishes the Come command. (That will save you troubles later, if he decides to "sort-of Come" but upon reaching you, dances just out of your reach & takes off again. <g>) Be carefully aware of your body language as he approaches you. Even if you are annoyed that he took off, or didn't come on his own...DON'T let your voice or body language display anger! If you look intimidating or aggressive, he may be too afraid to come. (An intimidated dog will often approach you in a wide arc, ears held out sideways, body slinking low to the ground...and he will swerve around you at the last moment. He's not being a smart-aleck...he is simply uneasy or frightened of you.) Never tell a dog to "Come" for something bad like a punishment or bath, either! ;) You don't want to give him a mind full of reasons NOT to come. Practice makes perfect on this command, so practice it often...initially in a quiet setting, but gradually work up to where he will Come even in the face of serious distractions, such as a squirrel or deer running by.
LOTS of other step-by-step training tips are readily available--read as many books and web sites as you can, & develop a style that works for you and your dog. ;-) Dogs are individuals--if the methods you are using don't seem to be working well for your particular dog, try another approach!